Fujimori on Trial :: Fujimori procesado

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Witness says Fujimori gave orders to military

April 17th, 2008 · No Comments

April 14, 2008

Forty-ninth session. Gen. José Rolando Valdivia Dueñas continued his testimony from the previous session.



The most significant part of his testimony in this hearing was:


1.     1984. The Peruvian army general said he found out in 1984 that the violence unleashed by Shining Path was Peru’s principal enemy.

2.     1990 – 1991 Change in counter-subversion strategy. Due to Alberto Fujimori’s leadership, there was a change in the Peruvian army’s counter-subversion strategy, which was enacted with new legislation and provided greater resources in the area of intelligence for the struggle against Shining Path.

a.     Barrios Altos. Nov. 3, 1991. As a general of the Second Military Region, Valdivia heard about the Barrios Altos crime through the media. He said he assumed it was an attack by Shining Path and thus didn’t give it much importance, despite media reports that cars and arms from the army were used.

3.     1992 Self-coup.

a.     Military meeting, Fujimori and Montesinos. April 3, 1992, two days before the “self-coup,” the witness said he attended a meeting in the army commander general’s house, where Fujimori was also present and gave orders “on the measures for the self-coup.”

The verbal “invitation” was made by Nicolás Hermoza Ríos. Ministers of defense and the interior attended, as well as commander generals such as Luis Salazar Monroe, Julio Salazar Monroe, Pablo Carmona Acha and Vladimiro Montesinos.

b.     An announcement signed by military officials was released the next day.

c.     April 5. The day as the self-coup, the witness said he “doesn’t remember well” if he attended a meeting with the Army General Command or not.

d.     Valdivia found out through the media that journalists and politicians had been arrested.

e.     La Cantuta. Jul. 18, 1992. The witness also found out through the media about the Cantuta crime, involving the murder of nine students and a professor, and did nothing about it. He was still in charge of the army’s Second Military Region.

4.     1993.

a. Valdivia was first a delegate for Peru before the Organization of American States (OAS).

b. Later he was an attaché of the defense in the Ukraine (at the same time that Pedro Supo Sánchez, former Colina agente, was an attaché in Russia under the command of then general, José Revilla Lazarte).

c. According to the manual on the organization and functions of the National Intelligence Office (DINTE) — parts of which were read during the hearing and Valdivia acknowledged that they were true — it is the job of the DINTE to designate, give instructions to and orient the military attaches. According to the witness, these functions were not carried out; in other words, the norms outlined in official documents are not always followed.


Truth and Reconciliation Commission, according to Valdivia. According to his testimony, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (CVR, for its initials in Spanish) used the logic of Shining Path leader Abimael Guzmán, since it multiplied the number of victims times three.

Though Valdivia accepted the TRC conclusion that 54% of the deaths were caused directly by Shining Path, he said that if the state is responsible for 45% of the deaths, it’s very different if the total number of victims is 25,000 or 69,280 (the approximate number of deaths determined by the TRC).


César Nakazaki’s declarations.

The defense lawyer for Alberto Fujimori, Nicolás Hermoza Ríos and Julio Salazar Monroe announced that his client Fujimori will not testify as a witness in the criminal trials against Vladimiro Montesinos (who was a “key part” in intelligence work, according to what Fujimori declared in his testimony).

Nakazaki justified this by saying that Fujimori’s extradition only allows the former president to be investigated for the crimes approved by the Chilean Supreme Court.

However, in the trials against Montesinos for his escape to Panama and the intervention of the judiciary in 1992 (by the self-coup), Fujimori’s testimony has been requested. At no time has the Peruvian judiciary accused Fujimori of these crimes.


Next witnesses:

1. Luis Salazar Monroe (Julio Salazar Monroe’s brother)

2. Pablo Armando Carmona Acha

Pablo Carmona Acha was second commander of the Second Military Region in 1992. Luis Salazar Monroe was inspector of this military region in 1991 and was commander general of the same region in 1992. Carmona Acha has previously testified, on May 14, 2001, that the official who had direct control over La Cantuta University was Luis Pérez Documet, who has refused to testify in this trial. Pérez reported directly to Luis Salazar Monroe.

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